Migration infers to the movement of people, animals, data, or ions from one place or medium to another. People and animals especially birds mostly move from one place to another in search of better conditions. On the other hand, data migration implies to a term commonly used in information technology to refer to the act of transferring data between storage types and computer systems. Human migration is a process that has been ongoing since human existence. The causes of human migration include political, social, and economic factors. Migration of people causes immigration and emigration phenomenon witnessed in most parts of the world.
War is a dominant factor for physical movement of people from one place to another. Political turmoil mostly due to ideological disagreements results in wars that displace people who have to seek refuge in foreign countries. Throughout the existence of humanity, there have been many wars with many still persisting and showing no signs of slowing down. Such is the situation in the Middle East where many Syrians have had to migrate to neighboring countries to escape civil war.
In the Victorian era, people migrated in search of food, water, and shelter for themselves and their animals. Nomadic tribes who engaged in pastoralism and other economic activities such as gathering moved from one place to another. The nomads desisted from building permanent structures that would restrict their movement. People could not, however, migrate great distances because of transport restrictions.
Modern technology has transformed migration of people and animals. Planes which were non-existent in previous periods ship massive multitudes of people and goods between continents. The result is the rise of social strives due to competition for resources between the locals and immigrants. One such area of competition is the limited jobs that the locals and foreigners have to share. Streamlined immigration systems have become pertinent as more and more people immigrate and emigrate.
Although the right of an individual to a leave a country is guaranteed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Charter, it is complicated by there being no corresponding right to gain entry into a country. This highlights the current context characterized by strict border controls and strong political and social awareness on the issue of migration. Only a limited segment of the world’s population can gain entry into whichever country they choose. Affluent citizens from developed countries can move around more freely as compared to others who have to obtain visas and residence permits. Thus, the idea of free migration of people and goods becomes utopian. However, yesterday’s utopia can be tomorrow’s reality. Free migration can be achieved only if ethical and economic challenges that persist are addressed.